Future electrical systems expect additional flexibility from demand. « Demand Response is the process of customer appearance. postpone when they use their most energy-intensive energy applications to reduce demand on the grid. ». For example, Ameren and Enel X announced a contract for Enel X to provide 100 MW of demand response: demand response programs pay large energy consumers, such as generation sites, government authorities and commercial real estate companies, to adapt their electricity consumption, which provides valuable energy services to the grid. Demand Response offers greater grid flexibility and more efficient use of electrical infrastructure to keep electricity prices as low as possible for all consumers. Dr`s sole objective is to shift responsibility for the supply of electricity at the ceiling from producers to consumers during peak hours A large number of market participants need to act as load response intermediaries. Matt, with very few exceptions, demand on the network is well below capacity at all times of the year, and there is no evidence that DR creates « increased flexibility. » An additional advantage of the Microgrid`s « Solar + Storage » combination is the ability to reduce costly application costs. The application fee is based on a customer`s maximum monthly charge and can, in many cases [in Massachusetts], reach 70% of a commercial customer`s electricity bill. In addition, the city can make full use of storage capacity to participate more effectively in a number of demand response programs to further reduce operating costs. Based on data collected in EIA`s annual Sales, Revenue, and Energy Efficiency Survey, approximately 9.3 million customers in the U.S. participated in demand response programs in 2014. Most of these customers (93%) were active in the residential sector, with the average private customer saving about 100 kilowatt hours per year (kWh) and in turn receiving about $40. Today, European electricity systems are developing towards a more decentralised, less predictable and less flexible electricity generation mix.
In this context, additional flexibility is expected from demand. Therefore, the question of how consumers can participate in the response to demand becomes an urgent issue. . . .